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Blood Analysis Forensics – Why They Are Needed

Blood Analysis Forensics - Why They Are Needed

Blood analysis, Forensics laboratory examination of a sample of blood used to obtain information about its physical and chemical properties. Blood analysis is commonly carried out on a sample of blood drawn from the vein of the arm, the finger, or the earlobe; in some cases, the blood cells of the bone marrow may also be examined. Hundreds of hematological tests and procedures have been developed, and many can be carried out simultaneously on one sample of blood with such instruments as autoanalyzers.

Blood is made up of multiple components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma.

Forensics Laboratory examination

Physicians rely upon laboratory analysis to obtain measurements of many constituents of the blood, information useful or necessary for the detection and recognition of disease.

Blood is compose of plasma and blood cells. The blood cells-erythrocytes (red cells), leukocytes (white cells), and thrombocytes (platelets)-are suspend in the plasma with other particulate matter. Plasma is a clear straw-colour fluid that makes up more than half the volume of blood. It is distinguish from serum, the clear cell-free fluid in which fibrinogen, a soluble protein normally found in the plasma, convert to fibrin, an insoluble clotting protein, and from which fibrin and other clotting proteins remove. Serum is form when the plasma or whole blood is allow to clot. Centrifugation can be use to separate the plasma or serum from blood samples. Tests to measure the concentration of substances in the blood may use plasma, serum, or whole blood that has been anticoagulate to keep all the contents in suspension.

Measurable Properties Of Blood

Many tests are design to determine the Forensics number of erythrocytes and leukocytes in the blood, together with the volume, sedimentation rate, and hemoglobin concentration of the red blood cells (blood count). In addition, certain tests are use to classify blood according to specific red blood cell antigens, or blood groups (see blood typing). Other tests elucidate the shape and structural details of blood cells and hemoglobin and other blood proteins. Blood also can be analyze to determine the activity of various enzymes, or protein catalysts, that either are associate with the blood cells or are found free in the blood plasma.

Blood also may be analyze on the basis of properties such as total volume, circulation time, viscosity, clotting time. And clotting abnormalities, acidity (pH), levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide. And the clearance rate of various substances (see kidney function test). There are also Forensics special tests based on the presence in the blood of substances characteristic of specific infections, such as the serological tests for syphilis, hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; the AIDS virus).

Blood Cell Count

A complete blood count (CBC) is a measure of the hematologic parameters of the blood. Included in the CBC is the calculation of the number of red cells (red cell count) or white cells (white cell count) in a cubic millimetre (mm3) of blood, a differential white cell count, a hemoglobin assay, a hematocrit, calculations of red cell volume, and a platelet count. The differential white cell count includes measurements of the different types of white cells that constitute the total white cell count: the band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.

A specific infection can be suspecte on the basis of the type of leukocyte that has an abnormal value. Viral infections usually affect the lymphocyte count, whereas bacterial infections increase the percentage of band neutrophils. Eosinophils are increase in patients with allergic conditions and some parasitic infections. The immune system of a healthy individual responds to infection by increasing the number of white blood cells; however, the immune system infected with HIV. Which damages the body’s ability to fight infection, is unable to mount a defense of white blood cells (namely, lymphocytes) and cannot defend the body against viral, bacterial, or parasitic assault.

Forensics Calculations of Red Cells Benifits

Calculations of red cells provide important information on the possible Forensics etiology (origin) of a disease. For example, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the most useful indicator for anemia. The reticulocyte count, which measures the number of young red cells being produce. Is use to distinguish between anemias resulting from a decrease in production of erythrocytes. And those caused by an increase in destruction or loss of erythrocytes. An increase in the number of red cells (polycythemia) is normal. For persons living at high altitudes, but in most of the population it indicates disease.

Platelets, small structures that are two to four micrometres in diameter, play a role in bloods clotting. A decrease in the platelet count can result in bleeding. If the number falls to a value below 20,000 platelets per microlitre. Counts above 50,000 to 100,000 per microlitre may be require for invasive or surgical procedures. Platelet function is important; for example, patients with a normal platelet count who have been on anticoagulant drugs such as aspirin. May have increased or severe bleeding when subjected to cardiovascular surgical procedures.

Hematopoiesis (the production of blood cells) occurs in the bone marrow. And many types of blood disorders can be best diagnose by analyzing a sample of bone marrow remove by a needle. From the centre of the pelvic bone or the sternum (bone marrow biopsy).

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